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冲压模具爆裂的原因分析(一)

来源:http://www.maramnaga.com 日期:2019-08-24 发布人:admin 浏览次数:
由于冲压工序不同,工作条件不同,造成模具爆裂的原因是多方面的。下面山东模具制造厂家就冲模的设计、制造及使用等方面综合分析模具爆裂的原因,并做出相应的改善措施。
Because of the different stamping processes and working conditions, the causes of die burst are various. Following Shandong die manufacturer on the design, manufacture and use of the punch die comprehensive analysis of the causes of die burst, and make corresponding improvement measures.
1、模具材质不好,在后续加工中容易碎裂
1. Mold material is not good, easy to break in subsequent processing.
不同材质的模具寿命往往不同。为此,对于冲模工作零件材料,提出两项基本要求:
Die life of different materials is often different. For this reason, two basic requirements are put forward for the material of the working parts of the punching die.
(1)工艺性能良好。冲模工作零件加工制造过程一般较为复杂,因而,必须具有对各种加工工艺的适应性,如可锻性、可切削加工性、淬硬性、淬透性、淬火裂纹敏感性和磨削加工性等。
(1) The process performance is good. The manufacturing process of working parts of punching dies is generally complex. Therefore, it is necessary to have adaptability to various processing technologies, such as forgability, machinability, hardenability, hardenability, quenching crack sensitivity and grinding processing.
(2)材料的使用性能应具有高硬度(58-64HRC)和高强度,并具有高的耐磨性和足够的韧性,热处理变形小,有一定的热硬性。
(2) The material should have high hardness (58-64HRC) and high strength, high wear resistance and enough toughness, small heat treatment deformation, and a certain degree of hardness.
2、热处理:淬火回火工艺不当产生变形
2. Heat Treatment: Deformation due to improper quenching and tempering process
实践证明,模具的热加工质量对模具的性能与使用寿命影响甚大。从模具失效原因的分析统计可知,因热处理不当所引发模具失效“事故”约占40%以上。
Practice has proved that the hot working quality of the die has a great influence on the performance and service life of the die. According to the analysis and statistics of the causes of die failure, the "accidents" caused by improper heat treatment accounted for more than 40%.
山东模具制造厂家
(1)预备热处理:应视模具工作零件的材料和要求的不同分别采用退火、正火或调质等预备热处理工艺,以改善组织,消除锻造毛坯的组织缺陷,改善加工工艺性。高碳合金模具钢经过适当的预备热处理,可消除网状二次渗碳体或链状碳化物,使碳化物球化、细化,促进碳化物分布均匀性,这样有利于保证淬火、回火质量,提高模具寿命。
(1) Preparatory heat treatment: Preparatory heat treatment processes such as annealing, normalizing or tempering should be adopted according to the different materials and requirements of working parts of the die to improve the structure, eliminate the structural defects of forged blanks and improve the processing technicality. High-carbon alloy die steel can eliminate reticulated secondary carbide or chain carbide after proper pre-heat treatment, make carbide spheroidized and refined, promote carbide distribution uniformity, which is conducive to ensuring the quality of quenching and tempering, and improve the life of the die.
(2)淬火与回火:这是模具热处理中的关键环节。若淬火加热时产生过热,不仅会使工件造成较大的脆性,而且,在冷却时容易引起变形和开裂,严重影响模具寿命。冲模淬火加热时特别应注意防止氧化和脱碳,应严格控制热处理工艺规范,在条件允许的情况下,可采用真空热处理。淬火后应及时回火,并根据技术要求采用不同的回火工艺。
(2) Quenching and tempering: This is the key link in the heat treatment of dies. If overheating occurs during quenching heating, it will not only cause greater brittleness of the workpiece, but also cause deformation and cracking during cooling, which will seriously affect the life of the die. When the die is quenched and heated, special attention should be paid to preventing oxidation and decarbonization. The heat treatment process specification should be strictly controlled. Vacuum heat treatment can be adopted when conditions permit. After quenching, it should temper in time and adopt different tempering processes according to technical requirements.
(3)锻造工艺:这是模具工作零件制造过程中的重要环节。对于高合金工具钢的模具,通常对材料碳化物分布等金相组织提出技术要求。
(3) Forging process: This is an important link in the manufacturing process of die work parts. For high alloy tool steel dies, technical requirements are usually put forward for the distribution of carbides and other metallographic structures.
(4)消应力退火:模具工作零件在粗加工后,应进行消应力退火处理,其目的是消除粗加工所造成的内应力,以免淬火时产生过大的变形和裂纹。对于精度要求高的模具,在磨削或电加工后还需经过消应力回火处理,有利于稳定模具精度,提高使用寿命。
(4) Stress relief annealing: After rough processing, the die parts should be treated by stress relief annealing. The purpose is to eliminate the internal stress caused by rough processing, so as to avoid excessive deformation and cracks during quenching. For the die with high precision, it needs stress relief and tempering after grinding or electro-processing, which is helpful to stabilize the accuracy of the die and improve its service life.
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